Korte omschrijving:
The personality of the Musician
(Kemp Bulletin 1981)

On the one end of the scale there are the brass and percussion instrumentalists who see themselves as athletic and extravert.
At the other end of the scale are the string and woodwind instrumentalist who are introvert, have a poor self-image and are not at all athletic.
The remainder fall somewhere in-between.
Pianists tend to be extrovert, conservative and self disciplined (Lipton, Builione).
In a symphonic orchestra stage fright is reported by 24-63%, depression 17%, sleep related problems 14%, stress13% and headaches 10% (Middlestadt Fishbein 1989).
Stress factors for professional musicians include separation from their families (43%), unsteady work hours (45%), rehearsal boredom (43%), work related travel (42%) (Steptoe 1987 Br Psychol).
For students stress related factors are career insecurity (80%) professional competition (51%), competition from colleagues (42%) and unstable work hours (20%).
Salmon (Med. Perf. Art 1990) notes that the correct term for this type of stress is ' Musician's performance stress '.

Reasons for Stage fright are:
• Self-criticism. Negative thoughts which stem from criticism in the past
• Competitive relationship with their instrument. Psychological pressure from perfectionism, feeling personally responsible for any errors.
• Lack of concentration during performance, distractions, (Kaplan 1969) or self –damaging thoughts (Winnicott 1971) from their fear of criticism the musician's performance is distracted.
• Insufficient rehearsal.
• Feeling out of control. Trembling increased heart rate. Dealing with focus where the musician puts himself in the spectator's seat.
• Lack of communication with the audience. The dynamics of shame (Mayman 1974) feeling naked and unprotected in front of the audience.
• Lack of self-awareness. Low self image. Weak personality.



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