Een onderzoek van de Oklahoma State University toonde 442 bacteriƫnsoorten, 58 schimmelsoorten en 19 soorten gist aan in de muziekinstrumenten van een High School Band. Lees het artikel en huiver!

In het tijdschrift "General Dentistry" van maart/april staat een onderzoek dat de bron is van een artikel van Shari Roan in de Los Angeles Times.

Kids' musical instruments booming with bacteria

March 15, 2011 - By Shari Roan, Los Angeles Times.

The musical instruments kids play in school bands and orchestras are traveling denizens of bacteria and fungi, say the authors of a new study. Music education is great for kids, they note, but please, please wash the instruments!

Researchers at Oklahoma State University bravely examined 13 instruments that belonged to a high school band. Six of the instruments had been played the previous week and seven hadn't been played in a month.
Swabs were taken of 117 different sites on the instruments, including the mouthpieces, internal chambers and even the carrying cases.

The results scored high on the yuck factor.

The researchers found 442 different bacteria, 58 types of mold and 19 types of yeast.
Many of the bacteria were species of Staphylococcus, which can cause staph infection.
Most of the bacteria can cause illness, the authors noted. Mold spores can contribute to the development of asthma.
Even the instruments that had not been played recently harbored germs galore.

"Furthermore, this study also found that many of these microbes are highly resistant to some or most of the antibiotics normally used in general practice, including methicillin," the authors wrote.

The study showed that reeds and mouthpiece ends were more contaminated than bell ends, but even the midpoints of the instruments and bell ends contained plenty of toxins.
Woodwinds tended to be germier than brass instruments. Even the woodwind cases were more contaminated than the brass cases. Clarinets were the filthiest instruments.
The germs in the instruments can be easily transferred to the students' hands, which in turn could contaminate other
instruments, other students or the band room, the researchers said.

They noted that many school band instruments are loaned to students and have been played by countless other people "whose health histories are unknown."

While bandos are not Typhoid Marys, their instruments are truly a problem, the researchers said. All instruments should be sterilized on a routine basis.

Ethylene oxide is the only agent known to sterilize instruments effectively," they wrote.


Nota Bene:
Ethylene oxide is a poison gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, pure ethylene oxide is a disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry.
It is extremely flammable and explosive and is used as a main component of thermobaric weapons, therefore, it is commonly handled and shipped as a refrigerated liquid.

Uittreksel van het onderzoek:
Evaluation of the microbial flora found in woodwind and brass instruments and their potential to transmit diseases.

Glass RT, Conrad RS, Kohler GA, Bullard JW.
Gen Dent. 2011 Mar-Apr; 59(2):100-7.


Previous studies of dental devices (toothbrushes, dentures, and protective athletic mouthguards) have demonstrated microbial contamination of these devices and possible transmission of infectious diseases to the users.
Since woodwind and brass instruments come into intimate contact with the musician's oral cavity and often are passed from student to student without sanitization, the question arises as to whether these instruments are contaminated and can transmit microbial diseases.
The purpose of this study was to determine if woodwind and brass instruments and/or their cases harbor opportunistic, pathogenic, or allergenic microorganisms that can be transmitted to the musician.
The internal components of woodwind and brass instruments harbored opportunistic, pathogenic, and/or allergenic microorganisms.
The highest concentrations of microorganisms were found consistently at the mouthpiece end, but there was evidence of contamination throughout the instruments and their cases.
The close proximity of contaminated mouthpieces to the oral cavity could facilitate local and systemic dissemination of the resident opportunistic, pathogenic, and/or allergenic microorganisms.
General dentists should determine whether patients play a brass or woodwind instrument and be aware of the possible impact of this activity on the oral cavity and the entire body.

Bron: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21903519